pope alexander vi cause of death

"The Death of Pope Alexander VI, 1503" EyeWitness to History, www.eyewitnesstohistory.com Thus the two great houses of Orsini and Colonna, who had long fought for predominance in Rome and often flouted the pope's authority, were subjugated, and a great step achieved towards consolidating the Borgia's power. But a promise of French help at once forced the confederates to come to terms, and Cesare by an act of treachery seized the ringleaders at Senigallia, and put Oliverotto da Fermo and Vitellozzo Vitelli to death (December 31, 1502). He desecrated the Holy Church as none before." Alexander VI August 11, 1492 - August 18, 1503 . 1474)Son: Cesare Borgia (b. Explore Alexander Pope's biography, personal life, family and cause of death. A collection of popes who have had violent deaths through the centuries. [1] SOME LIES AND ERRORS OF HISTORY POPE ALEXANDER VI. But the rest of the clan still held out, and the papal troops sent against them under Guidobaldo duke of Urbino and the duke of Gandia were defeated at Soriano (January 1497). Papal Conclave of September 1503. I wrote earlier about Pope Alexander VI, by way of the rogue’s gallery arrayed against him and his treacherous bastard son Cesare Borgia. He Pope Alexander VI Pope. As Cesare also drank the poisoned wine, he too fell ill, though he survived. Death of Mate 1498 (Second husband killed by brother) Relationship : Marriage 1501 (Duke Alfonso of Ferrara) Death of Father 1503 (Pope Alexander VI) Death, Cause unspecified 24 June 1519 (greg.) Alexander VI, given name Rodrigo Borgia, Roman Catholic Pope from 1492 until his death, is the most memorable of the corrupt and secular popes of the Renaissance. On this we laid the body of the pontiff, with three of the cushions to support him and the old tapestry again as a coveting. This brought the latter into conflict with Alexander, who determined to revenge himself by making an alliance with the king's enemies, especially the Sforza family, lords of Milan. He sired at least twelve children through a number of mistresses. The clergy defended themselves, but stopped chanting and fled to the sacristy when the soldiers began to use their weapons. That he obtained the papacy through simony was the general belief (Pastor, loc. The pope, ever in need of money, now created twelve new cardinals, from whom he received 120,000 ducats, and fresh conquests for Cesare were considered. His career shows no great political ideas, and none of his actions indicate genius. In the north the pendulum swung back once more and the French reoccupied Milan in April, causing the downfall of the Sforzas, much to Alexander's gratification. Alexander VI and his son Cesare Borgia emerged as two of the most feared and hated figures in Italy during the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, leading some to believe Pope Alexander VI's cause of death was assassination. Cesare was preparing for another expedition into central Italy in July 1503, when, in the midst of all these projects and negotiations, both he and his father were taken ill with fever. Thus further weakened, he felt more than ever that he had only his own kin to rely upon, and his thoughts were ever turned on family aggrandizement. According to Burchard, Alexander VI's stomach became swollen and turned to liquid, while his face became wine-colored and his skin began to peel off. The general political outlook in Italy was of the gloomiest, and the country was on the eve of the catastrophe of foreign invasion. also unwell at the time, sent Michelotto with a large number of retainers to During this time period, a life as a Catholic priest was considered to be an excellent career move for young men regardless of their personal piety. Giovanni Montini’s life as an ordained minister of the Catholic Church began on May 29, 1920 and continued until his death in 1978. Pope Alexander VI, born Rodrigo Lanzol Borja was Pope from 1492 until his death on 18 August 1503. It is interesting to note that both the lay Saint and the priest were highly critical of papal conduct in their time, epitomized by the "Bad Pope" Alexander VI (r. 1492-1503), who by his overt corruption triggered, in the opinion of most historians, the Protestant Revolt about a decade after his death. With this, Montini selected the papal name Paul VI. But his military force was uncertain, for the condottieri were not to be trusted. August 6, 1978: On the Feast of the Transfiguration: The Death of Pope Paul VI. Alexander carried on a double policy, always ready to seize opportunities to aggrandize his family. John Paul I had been chosen to replace the deceased “Pope” Paul VI (1963-78), Giovanni Battista Montini. He had annulled Lucrezia's marriage with Sforza in 1497, and, unable to arrange a union between Cesare and the daughter of Frederick, king of Naples (who had succeeded Ferdinand II the previous year), he induced the latter by threats to agree to a marriage between the duke of Bisceglie, a natural son of Alphonso II, and Lucrezia. with two coffers containing about a hundred thousand ducats. The Fall of the House of Borgia (1974); Manchester, William, A World Lit Only BACKGROUND . From Some Lies and Errors of History by the Rev. After Borgia’s death, Pope Pius III served as 215th Pope only for 26 days before his death on October 18, 1503. . His death was followed by scenes of wild disorder, and Cesare, himself apparently ill or poisoned but who survived, could not attend to business, but sent Don Michelotto, his chief bravo, to se… This year was a jubilee year, and crowds of pilgrims flocked to the city from all parts of the world bringing money for the purchase of indulgences, so that Alexander was able to furnish Cesare with funds for his enterprise. On the day of his election, Julius II declared that he would not live in the same room that Borgia had lived in. campaigns. Alexander was not the only person responsible for the general unrest in Italy and the foreign invasions, but he was ever ready to profit by them. The expedition, if it produced no material results, laid bare the weakness of the Italian political system and the country's incapacity for resistance. Rodrigo Borgia, the baby boy who would become Pope Alexander VI, one of the most infamous Popes of all time, was born in Valencia, Spain on New Year's Day in 1431. of the Borgia, Geoffrey Parker editor and translator (1963); Chamberlin, E. R., Borgia's elevation did not at the time excite much alarm, except in some of the cardinals who knew him, and at first his reign was marked by a strict administration of justice and an orderly method of government in satisfactory contrast with the anarchy of the previous pontificate, as well as by great outward splendor. The Pope followed up the blow by proceeding against the Orsini with greater success than formerly. Alexander VI wanted to make his son great, but had no troops he could rely on. The most famous of his offspring were his son Cesare, noted for the murder of political rivals, and his daughter Lucrezia who was married off to a number of husbands for political gain. His responsibilities at the Vatican included oversight Rumours that he was poisonedare probably false. They therefore started the response, 'Free me, 0 Lord,' but as they were chanting, some of the palace guards seized the tapers. Johann Burchard was a Papal Master of Ceremonies from He became a priest in July 1935 and rose up the hierarchy–becoming a cardinal in 1973. These carried the body from the chapel straight into the middle of the Basilica. close all the doors that gave access to the pope's room. (2007). Alexander, overwhelmed with grief, shut himself up in Castle St. Angelo, and then declared that the reform of the church would be the sole object of his life henceforth -- a resolution which he did not keep. During his pontificate the church was brought to its lowest level of degradation. The year was 1492, and Rodrigo Borgia became Pope Alexander VI. of a church in Germany and launch the Protestant Reformation. But the expulsion of the French from Milan and the return of Lodovico Sforza interrupted his conquests, and he returned to Rome early in 1500. Headed by patriarch Rodrigo Borgia—who became Pope Alexander VI—the family was comprised of his four children: Cesare, Juan, Lucrezia, and Jofre, and they were accused of everything from buying the papal election to incest, with lots more in between. The treaty amended papal bulls issued by Pope Alexander VI in 1493. ; Notre Dame, Indiana: The Ave Maria; 7th edition; 1893; pp. But a reaction against Charles soon set in, for all the powers were alarmed at his success, and on the 31st of March a league between the pope, the emperor, Venice, Lodovico il Moro and Ferdinand of Spain was formed, ostensibly against the Turks, but in reality to expel the French from Italy. At the funeral a brawl occurred between the soldiers and the priests, and the coffin having been made too short the body without the mitre was driven into it by main force and covered with an oil-cloth. . His death was followed by scenes of wild disorder, and Cesare, being himself ill, could not attend to business, but sent Don Michelotto, his chief bravo, to seize the pope's treasures before the demise was publicly announced. Cesare was preparing for another expedition in August 1503 when, after he and his father had dined with Cardinal Adriano Castellesi on 6 August, they were taken ill with fever a few days later. The connection began in 1470, and she bore him many children whom he openly acknowledged as his own: Giovanni, afterwards Duke of Gandia (born 1474), Cesare (born 1476), Lucrezia (born 1480), and Goffredo or Giuffre (born 1481 or 1482). The local despots of Romagna were dispossessed and an administration was set up, which, if tyrannical and cruel, wasat least orderly and strong, and aroused the admiration of Machiavelli. Alexander allowed the French into Italy in exchange for the use of their troops to conquer the Romagna region. Among the fiefs destined for the Duke of Gandia were Cervetri and Anguillara, lately acquired by Virginio Orsini, head of that powerful and turbulent house, with the pecuniary help of Ferdinand of Aragon, king of Naples (Don Ferrante). The pope was unable to maintain order in his own dominions; the houses of Colonna and Orsini were at open war with each other, but after much fighting they made peace on a basis of alliance against the pope. Even if we do not accept all the stories of his murders and poisonings and immoralities as true, there is no doubt that his greed for money and his essentially vicious nature led him to commit a great number of crimes. Crime & Punishment in Elizabethan England, The Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots, 1587. Born: 1-Jan -1431. Remains: Buried, Iglesia de Santiago y Montserrat, Rome, Italy. Please help support ... which had been the original cause of their quarrel with the Pope. For many of his misdeeds his terrible son Cesare was responsible, but of others the pope cannot be acquitted. The new Pope loved the good life. This was not the papacy's finest hour. He kept a detailed diary And in failure, even their former friends had no hesitation in decrying them as scoundrels. Next morning, I had the bier brought into the Sala del Pappagallo and there set down. Alexander appealed to Ascanio Sforza for help, and even to the sultan. He made many alliances to secure his position, butfearing himself isolated he sought help from Charles VIII of France, and as the king of Naples threatened to come to the aid of Gian Galeazzo, who had married his granddaughter, he encouraged the French king in his schemes for the conquest of Naples. The Duke of Valentinois and the pope’s illegitimate son, Cesare Borgia, witnessed Sforza getting prepared for battle and strengthening her army at the fortress Rocca di Ravaldino. . The occurrence was of course attributed to poison, although quite without foundation, being merely due to malaria, at that time very prevalent in Rome. Lucrezia Borgia was an Italian noblewoman and daughter of Pope Alexander VI. Cesare, then a youth of sixteen and a student at Pisa, was made Archbishop of Valencia, his nephew Giovanni received a cardinal's hat, and for the Duke of Gandia and Giuffre the pope proposed to carve fiefs out of the papal states and the Kingdom of Naples. There was nothing left, and there was no-one to turn to for help. Giulia Farnese (1474 – 23 March 1524) was mistress to Pope Alexander VI, and the sister of Pope Paul III. "On Saturday morning, August 12th, the pope felt unwell, and at about three o'clock in the afternoon he became feverish. He was born at Xativa, near Valencia in Spain, and his father's surname was Lanzol or Llançol; that of his mother's family, Borgia or Borja, was assumed by him on the elevation of his maternal uncle to the papacy as Callixtus III (April 8, 1455). 2. Lucrezia Borgia (April 18, 1480–June 24, 1519) was the illegitimate daughter of Pope Alexander VI (Rodrigo Borgia) by one of his mistresses.She had three political marriages, arranged for her family's advantage, and likely had several adulterous alliances. For those who suspect Pope Alexander VI was guilty of licentiousness and duplicity, the vision of his death may seem apropos. Pre-Clerical Period. Pope Alexander VI. Upon the His one thought was family aggrandizement, and while it is unlikely that he meditated making the papacy hereditary in the house of Borgia, he certainly gave away its temporal estates to his children as though they belonged to him. Raphael, Michelangelo and Pinturicchio all worked for him, and a curious contrast, characteristic of human nature, is afforded by the fact that a family so steeped in vice and crime could take pleasure in the most exquisite works of art. His other children -- Girolamo, Isabella and Pier Luigi -- were of uncertain parentage. 1-24. In 1492, following the death of Pope Innocent VIII, Borgia emerged as the Pope with an unprecedented show of coercion and corruption, and held the office until his death in 1503. Neapolitan resistance collapsed; Alphonso fled and abdicated in favor of his son Ferdinand II, who also had to fly abandoned by all, and the kingdom was conquered with surprising ease. The year was 1492, and Rodrigo Borgia became Pope Alexander VI. Two hundred tapers were prepared for those who would assemble for the pope's funeral. Died: 18-Aug - 1503. In order to consolidate his possessions still further, now that French success seemed assured, the pope determined to deal drastically with Romagna, which although nominally under papal rule was divided up into a number of practically independent lordships on which Venice, Milan and Florence cast hungry eyes. What makes the matter even more interesting is that Raimondi is the first cousin of the shady “Abp.” Paul Marcinkus (1922-2006) , the long-time president of the Vatican Bank (1971-89). Cesare then returned to Rome, where his father wished him to assist Giuffre in reducing the last Orsini strongholds; this for some reason he was unwilling to do, much to Alexander's annoyance, but he eventually marched out, captured Ceri and made peace with Giulio Orsini, who surrendered Bracciano. Now occurred the first of those ugly domestic tragedies for which the house of Borgia remained famous. Birthplace: Játiva, Spain. Burchard recorded the events that surrounded the death of the Pope. How To Cite This Article: In 1492, following the death of Pope Innocent VIII, Borgia emerged as the Pope with an unprecedented show of coercion and corruption, and held the office until his death in 1503. Finally his stomach and bowels bled profusely. He therefore had the bier moved into the chapel entrance between the steps, with the pope's feet so close to the iron door that they could be touched through the grill. Cesare, who renounced his cardinalate, was sent on a mission to France at the end of the year, bearing a bull of divorce for the new king Louis XII, in exchange for which he obtained the duchy of Valentinois (hence his title of Duca Valentino) and a promise of material assistance in his schemes to subjugate the feudal princelings of Romagna; he married a princess of Navarre. Before his elevation to the papacy Cardinal Borgia's passion for Vannozza somewhat diminished, and she subsequently led a very retired life. [1] SOME LIES AND ERRORS OF HISTORY POPE ALEXANDER VI. The disorganization of the Curia was appalling, the sale of offices became a veritable scandal, the least opposition to the Borgia was punished with death, and even in that corrupt age the state of things shocked public opinion. While Alexander was a fascinating (and awful) figure, the most gameable part of his life is probably his death and the immediate fallout from it. A characteristic instance of the corruption of the papal court is the fact that Borgia's daughter Lucrezia lived with his mistress Giulia, who bore him a daughter Laura in 1492. As a matter of fact he cannot be regarded in any sense as a great man. John Paul I had been chosen to replace the deceased “Pope” Paul VI (1963-78), Giovanni Battista Montini. After accusing him of corruption, Della Rovere retreated from Rome until Alexander died in 1503. One of his boon companions was Jem, the brother of the sultan Bayezid, detained as a hostage. But in spite of the splendors of the court, the condition of Rome became every day more deplorable. Among the most notorious of all papacies, Borgia’s family was the inspiration for Mario Puzo’s Godfather books. But while a crusade was talked of, the real object was central Italy, and in the autumn Cesare, favored by France and Venice, set forth with 10,000 men to complete his interrupted enterprise. After the Pope's death, Cesare Borgia sent his military black operations man, Miguel de Corella, into the Pope's apartment with information on where his valuable treasures were stored. Birthplace: Játiva, Spain Location of death: Rome, Italy Cause of death: unspecified Remains: Buried, . Richard Cavendish | Published in History Today Volume 59 Issue 9 September 2009 According to one report, Adrian IV died after choking on a fly in his wine, but quinsy (an inflammation of the tonsils) is the more commonly accepted explanation. What makes the matter even more interesting is that Raimondi is the first cousin of the shady “Abp.” Paul Marcinkus (1922-2006) , the long-time president of the Vatican Bank (1971-89). By the dawn of the Renaissance, however, the mission of the papacy had been corrupted by the conflict between its sacred duties as the Vicar of Chr… Pope Alexander VI - Biography.Pope Alexander VI, born Rodrigo Lanzol Borja was Pope from 1492 until his death on 18 August 1503. AKA Rodrigo de Borja. By the autumn Louis was in Italy and expelled Lodovico Sforza from the Milanese. Her place in his affections was filled by the beautiful Giulia Farnese (Giulia Bella), wife of an Orsini, but his love for his children by Vannozza remained as strong as ever and proved, indeed, the determining factor of his whole career. Pope Alexander VI. (Age 39) chart Placidus Equal_H. Lucrezia had been married to the Spaniard Don Gasparo de Procida, but on her father's elevation to the papacy the union was annulled, and in 1493 she was married to Giovanni Sforza, lord of Pesaro, the ceremony being celebrated at the Vatican with unparalleled magnificence. Pope Alexander VI wanted to stretch the Papal States, and this threatened Sforza’s governing states of Imola and Forli. There the body remained through the day, with the iron door firmly closed. Desc: Pope Alexander VI, born Rodrigo de Borja, was Pope from 11 August 1492 until his death in 1503.Born into the prominent Borgia family in Xàtiva in the Crown of Aragon, Rodrigo studied law at the University of Bologna. Burchard's Diary provides a few details of the pope's final illness and death at age 72: The service was also attended by five cardinals - Serra, Francesco Borgia, Giovanni Castelar, Casanova and de Loris of Constantinople - to whom His Holiness stated that he felt ill. At the hour of Vespers he was given Extreme Unction by the Bishop of Carinola, and he expired in the presence of the datary, the bishop and the attendants standing by. As is the case generally with events inside the Vatican, mystery shrouds his demise, … 'S greed this year, viz and Pier Luigi -- were of parentage. Name of Pope john Paul I had been backed by Ferdinand part of the rogue’s gallery arrayed him. -- were of uncertain parentage father quailed before him been chosen to replace deceased. About Cardinal Ferrari 's death there is more doubt ; he probably died of fever, but the latter to! Beginning a long and complex relationship with the Pope 's hostility `` Hist drawn from him and his began... 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