reliability design in dynamic programming

177–186 (2004), Wang, L., Wang, X., Mak, T.: Dynamic programming-based lifetime aware adaptive routing algorithm for network-on-chip. IEEE Trans. Description of individual courses. Al-Dujaily, R., Mak, T., Lam, K.P., Xia, F., Yakovlev, A., Poon, C.S. » Certificates A dynamic programming-based lifetime-aware routing algorithm is proposed to optimize the lifetime distribution of routers. Since reliability is always a major issue in the network design, the problem is practical for critical applications requiring minimized cost. Aptitude que. Additionally, the minimal MTTF also decreases dramatically with NoC size, because the workloads of routers increase with the area of NoC. 160–165 (2015), Woo, S., Ohara, M., Torrie, E., Singh, J., Gupta, A.: The splash-2 programs: characterization and methodological considerations. Princeton University Press, Princeton (1957), Bhardwaj, K., Chakraborty, K., Roy, S.: An milp-based aging-aware routing algorithm for NoCs. Then they make use of such devices at each stage, that result is increase in reliability at each stage. » Articles If we imagine that r1 is the reliability of the device. Very Large Scale Integr. Each unit monitors local information and communicates with neighbor units, achieving a global optimization. The pathway of a packet can dynamically adapt to NoC traffic or other conditions. The registers for lifetime budget and failure rate value are 32 bits. For example, NBTI sensors are exploited to monitor the variation of threshold voltage, as the NBTI causes an increase on the threshold voltage of PMOS transistors. (b) Maximization of the system reliability subject to nonlinear constraints. Then the maximization problem can be given as follows: Here, Øi (mi) denotes the reliability of the stage i. However, at runtime the tasks are mapped on NoC-based MPSoC without considering the variation of runtime operating conditions. We also present a hardware implementation for lifetime estimation in Sect. Given a directed graph, $$\begin{aligned} {\text {maximize}}&\quad \sum _{\forall s\in \mathcal {V}}V(s,d) \nonumber \\ \text {subject to}&\quad V(s,d) \ge V(u,d)+C_{s,u}\\&\quad V(d,d) = 0\nonumber \end{aligned}$$, $$\begin{aligned} C_{r_{i},r_{i+1}}=LB_i \end{aligned}$$, $$\begin{aligned} C_{s,d}=\sum _{i=0}^{k-1}LB_i \end{aligned}$$, $$\begin{aligned} V_i(t)=\max _{\forall k}\{R_{i,k}(t)+V_k(t)\},~\forall i \end{aligned}$$, $$\begin{aligned} V^{(k)}(s,d)=\max _{\forall u\in V}\left\{ V^{(k-1)}(u,d)+C_{s,u}\right\} \end{aligned}$$, $$\begin{aligned} V^{*}(s,d)=\max _{\{r_0=s,...,r_{k-1}=d\}\in P_{s,d}}\left\{ \sum _{i=0}^{k-1}LB_{i}\right\} \end{aligned}$$, $$\begin{aligned} \mu (d)=arg\max _{\forall j}\{V^{*}(N(j),d)+LB_s\} \end{aligned}$$, We propose a dynamic programming-based lifetime-aware adaptive routing algorithm, which is outlined in Algorithm 1. The reliability of the system can be given as follows: If we increase the number of devices at any stage beyond the certain limit, then also only the cost will increase but the reliability could not increase. The dynamic programming network quickly resolves the optimal solution and passes the control decisions to routers, then the routing tables are updated. Mulas, F., Atienza, D., Acquaviva, A., Carta, S., Benini, L., De Micheli, G.: Thermal balancing policy for multiprocessor stream computing platforms. » Content Writers of the Month, SUBSCRIBE The dynamic programming network is coupled with NoC. In fact, both methods can be used for our lifetime-aware routing algorithm because the lifetime-aware routing is independent of lifetime estimation. Failure mechanisms and models for semiconductor devices. Springer, Heidelberg (2015), Wang, X., Li, Z., Yang, M., Jiang, Y., Daneshtalab, M., Mak, T.: A low cost, high performance dynamic-programming-based adaptive power allocation scheme for many-core architectures in the dark silicon era. Srinivasan, J., Adve, S.V., Bose, P., Rivers, J.A. To address this need, ReliaSoft offers a three-day training seminar on Design for Reliability … » Java Ramachandran, P., Adve, S., Bose, P., Rivers, J.: Metrics for architecture-level lifetime reliability analysis. Watch Queue Queue Queue The dynamic programming based adaptive routing has already been applied in congestion avoidance [21], fault tolerance [35], thermal management [2], etc. Dynamic Programming (DP) is a technique that solves some particular type of problems in Polynomial Time.Dynamic Programming solutions are faster than exponential brute method and can be easily proved for their correctness. In this section, we first define a problem for lifetime reliability optimization and present the dynamic programming formulation for the problem. A wear-resistant router microarchitecture is designed in [17] to improve reliability of routers. The multi-core system adapts operating conditions with DVFS such that a predefined target lifetime is satisfied. This algorithm outputs the direction to be taken for current node, In this chapter, the routers are assumed wormhole flow control without virtual channel. A DP approach, called DPA-1, generates the topology using all … IEEE Trans. To converge to the optimal solution, the delay of DP network depends on the network topology. The detailed description of simulation setup is referred to Sect. Key Idea. This is because the lifetime reliability depends on the voltage, frequency and switching activity. Failure rate is computed through the lifetime budget computation unit, which is presented in Sect. The overall performance expressed as frequency policies is maximized under soft thermal constraint. Moreover, a low cost hardware unit is implemented to accelerate the lifetime budget computation at runtime. And the reliability of the stage I becomes (1 – (1 - ri) ^mi). The size of each entry is 32 bits. In: Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on VLSI Circuits, pp. » C The reliability of NoC can also be improved through routing algorithms. The comparisons are under flits injection rate from 0.01 to 0.17 flits/cycle. In other words, LBCU can be integrated with NoC with low overhead. Cite as. & ans. J. Becker, D.U. 8 reliability design dynamic programming youtube. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC), pp. Define a lifetime budget for each router, indicating the maximum allowed workload for current period. 239–244 (2007), Zhuo, C., Sylvester, D., Blaauw, D.: Process variation and temperature-aware reliability management. Aided Des. There are two kinds of failures in ICs: extrinsic failures and intrinsic failures. » Cloud Computing Ad: R BELLMAN, "Dynamic Programming and Lagrange Multipliers," Proc Nat Acad Sci 42, 767-769 (1956). Monitors determine Aging sensors are used to monitor the aging effects of transistors [18]. In the future work, we will exploit novel strategies for lifetime budgeting problem. If at each stage, there are mi similar types of devices Di, then the probability that all mi have a malfunction is (1 - ri)^mi, which is very less. \end{aligned}$$, Since MTTF or failure rate of a router is relevant to the flits incoming rate and temperature. The lifetime, measured in MTTF metric (mean time to failure), is normalized to the maximum one. Minimal MTTF comparisons under different routing algorithms (hours). Compared to deterministic routing algorithm, adaptive routing algorithm is more flexible. The buffer size is configured 10 flits. The reliability of NoC depends on the routers. [21]. There are mainly two methods to estimate lifetime reliability: For long term reliability management of routers, we only consider wear-out related faults. 136–147 (2013), Kim, T.H., Persaud, R., Kim, C.: Silicon odometer: an on-chip reliability monitor for measuring frequency degradation of digital circuits. In this chapter, lifetime is modeled as a resource consumed over time. Intrinsic failures are related with wear-out and are caused due to operation conditions within the specified conditions, e.g. » CS Organizations JCYJ20140417113430642 and JCYJ20140901003939020. However, the routing algorithm actually reduces the workloads of routers with high utilization, which may not exhibit the most aging effects. 382–391 (2012), Bienia, C., Kumar, S., Singh, J.P., Li, K.: The parsec benchmark suite: characterization and architectural implications. If we imagine that r1 is the reliability of the device. Lifetime is modeled as a resource consumed over time. In: Proceedings of IEEE 24th International Symposium on Computer Architecture and High Performance Computing (SBAC-PAD), pp. constant current, temperature, frequency and voltage) keep unchanged. More: Comput. Dally, W.J., Seitz, C.L. NTD-CR, to design a minimal-cost communication network topology that satisfies a pre-defined reliability constraint. Reliability design D 0 D 1 D 2 … D n-1 D 0 D 0 D D 1 D 1 … D 0 D 2 D n-1 2 D n-1 2 2 D D n-1 2 Multiple devices are used at each stage. Therefore the routing algorithm, which determines the routing paths, plays an important role in the lifetime distribution of routers. Because cost is always a major focus in network design, this problem is practical for critical applications requiring maximized reliability. First, we define a lifetime budget metric for each router. Figure 2 presents an example of \(3\times 3\) dynamic programming network. Finally, the lifetime-aware routing algorithms are evaluated in synthetic traffic and real benchmarks. The NoP routing algorithm, a congestion-aware routing, is the west-first turn model with neighbors-on-path (NoP) selection scheme; the Oddeven routing is the oddeven turn model [. : Lifetime improvement through runtime wear-based task mapping. We adopt west-first turn model for deadlock avoidance [. Tree DP Example Problem: given a tree, color nodes black as many as possible without coloring two adjacent nodes Subproblems: – First, we arbitrarily decide the root node r – B v: the optimal solution for a subtree having v as the root, where we color v black – W v: the optimal solution for a subtree having v as the root, where we don’t color v – Answer is max{B In reliability design, the problem is to design a system that is composed of several devices connected in series. Hanumaiah et al. In this article, we will learn about the concept of reliability design problem. Section 5 analyzes the experimental results and Sect. Watch Queue Queue. Parallel Distrib. To evaluate the impacts on the global average delay, the lifetime-aware routing is also compared with the other three routing algorithms. What is reliability design using dynamic programming, for example. NoC provides communication fabrics for data transmission among cores. The areas of router and LBCU are 29810 \(\mu m^2\) and 1529 \(\mu m^2\) respectively. » DOS Murkiest. However, the overall MTTF cannot effectively reflect the reliability of routers. The primary objective of this chapter is on lifetime-aware routing for lifetime optimization. If we imagine that r1 is the reliability of the device. Similar to [22], the lifetime is optimized in long-term scale while the performance is optimized in short-term scale. 162.244.92.165. Join our Blogging forum. Define a problem to optimize the lifetime by routing packets along the path with maximum lifetime budgets. We take NoC as a whole and evaluate the overall MTTF of NoC. Overlapping subproblems:When a recursive algorithm would visit the same subproblems repeatedly, then a problem has overlapping subproblems. An optimal reliability design is one in which all possible means available to a designer have been explored to enhance the reliability of the system with minimum cost under the constraints imposed on the development of a system. In Noxim, the power of routers are modeled using ORION 2.0 NoC power simulator [, In the experiments, we compare the lifetime-aware routing algorithm with XY routing, NoP routing and Oddeven routing, respectively. Google Scholar Cross Ref; S DREYFUS, "Dynamic Programming Solution of Allocation Problems," presented at Techniques of Industrial Operations Research Seminar, June 12 … VLSI Syst. They introduced an aging model that defines stressed links and routers, in which the traffic of a router or link exceeds the upper limit called Traffic Threshold per Epoch (TTpE). Part of Springer Nature. The DP network can provide a real-time response without consuming data-flow network bandwidth due to the simplicity of the the computational unit. temperature, current density, etc. In this chapter, we propose a dynamic programming-based lifetime-aware routing algorithm for NoC reliability management. The DP network presents several features to NoC: The failure rate computation is an exponential function, not applicable for runtime computation. The global average delay is evaluated with random traffic pattern. In this chapter, we apply dynamic reliability management to NoC and propose a lifetime-aware routing to optimize the lifetime reliability of NoC routers. 202–212 (2008). Optimal Substructure:If an optimal solution contains optimal sub solutions then a problem exhibits optimal substructure. An example of \(3\times 3\) dynamic programming network coupled with NoC. » Linux The experimental results show that the lifetime-aware routing can distribute the lifetime of routers more evenly. Before we study how … have concluded that the network convergence time is proportional to the network diameter, which is the longest path in the network [20]. So, if we duplicate the devices at each stage then the reliability of the system can be increased. » Machine learning 1–8 (2013), Wang, X., Wang, T., Mak, T., Yang, M., Jiang, Y., Daneshtalab, M.: Fine-grained runtime power budgeting for networks-on-chip. Chiu, G.M. Wherever we see a recursive solution that has repeated calls for same inputs, we can optimize it using Dynamic Programming. IEEE Trans. IEEE Trans. In addition, routing tables are implemented in routers. Deterministic routing algorithm provides a fixed path given source and destination. The router is open-source and developed by Becker [3]. 326–331 (2012), Bhardwaj, K., Chakraborty, K., Roy, S.: Towards graceful aging degradation in NoCs through an adaptive routing algorithm. If r1 = 0.99 and n = 10 that n devices are set in a series, 1 = i = 10, then reliability of the whole system πri can be given as: Πri = 0.904 We implement lifetime budget computation unit (LBCU) with Verilog HDL and compare LBCU with router in terms of area. » Python In: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Parallel Architectures and Compilation Techniques (PCAT), pp. The experimental results show that the lifetime-aware routing has around 20 %, 45 %, 55 % minimal MTTF improvement than XY routing, NoP routing, and Oddeven routing, respectively. Submitted by Shivangi Jain, on August 21, 2018. Huang, W., Ghosh, S., Velusamy, S., Sankaranarayanan, K., Skadron, K., Stan, M.: Hotspot: a compact thermal modeling methodology for early-stage VLSI design. Hartman, A.S., Thomas, D.E. Thus the lifetime can be improved without having much impact the performance. International audiencePSA results are expected to be used to improve the design, the operating procedures or the safety policy of a system. The lifetime reliability of a router has strong correlation with the routing algorithm because the lifetime reliability is relevant to operating conditions and temperature, which are affected by the routing algorithm. In \(8\times 8\) NoC, the Normalized MTTF of routers is evaluated under different routing algorithms. Extrinsic failures are caused by manufacturing defects and occur with a decreasing rate over time. The detail evaluation for dynamic programming network can refer to [21]. 1–6 (2013). » Contact us IFIP AICT, vol. » C++ In reliability design, the problem is to design a system that is composed of several devices connected in series. » Facebook » Internship Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. A set of nodes in network \(\mathcal {G}\), A set of edges in network \(\mathcal {G}\). Shi, B., Zhang, Y., Srivastava, A.: Dynamic thermal management under soft thermal constraints. In following sections, we propose a lifetime-aware routing algorithm to balance the lifetime distribution of routers. Are you a blogger? [2] proposed to balance the temperature of NoC by a thermal-aware routing algorithm. In: Proceedings of IEEE 11th Symposium on Embedded Systems for Real-time Multimedia (ESTIMedia), pp. Reliability management is mainly studied for single-core processor or multi-core processors through various solutions, such as task mapping [14], frequency control [25], reliability monitoring and adaptation [22], etc. » LinkedIn The MTTF improvement against XY routing is relatively smaller as the XY routing also brings relatively less traffic for the routers in the central region. » C In the failure mechanism models, lifetime reliability is highly related to temperature. Section 3 discusses the DRM and defines the lifetime budget for a router. 88–598 (2008), Bellman, R.: Dynamic Programming. A lifetime budget is defined for each router, indicating the maximum allowed workload for current time. Thus, if ri = 0.99 and mi = 2, then the stage reliability becomes 0.9999 which is almost equal to 1. Al-Dujaily et al. It suggests that the minimum MTTF router is aging more than 5 times faster than the maximum MTTF router. The failure mechanisms for intrinsic failures include electro migration (EM), time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB), stress migration (SM), Negative Bias temperature instability (NBTI) and thermal cycling (TC). We propose to balance the MTTF of routers through an adaptive routing algorithm. Compared with linear programming, the dynamic programming presents an opportunity for solving the problem using parallel architecture and can greatly improve the computation speed. Definition. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Performance Analysis of Systems and Software, pp. 6 concludes this chapter. » Java Mak, T., Cheung, P., Lam, K.P., Luk, W.: Adaptive routing in network-on-chips using a dynamic-programming network. : The case for lifetime reliability-aware microprocessors. A BASIC problem arising in the design of electronic equipment, and, in particular, in the construction of computing machines and automata (see reference 1) is that of constructing reliable devices from less reliable components. Industr. 1–20. For Reliability Design with Example in Hindi Follow: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HAFjqjuUUQQ See the Worked out example starts at 00:04:00. The failure rate, a metric for lifetime reliability, keeps almost constant if the operating conditions (e.g. Very Large Scale Integr. In this chapter, lifetime is modeled as a resource consumed over time. This based on the assumption that NoC fails when a router fails. IEEE Trans. 9–18 (2012). The case study is evaluated in \(8\times 8\) 2D mesh NoC. In: Ph.D. thesis, Stanford University (2012), Bell, S., Edwards, B., Amann, J., et al. The key idea is to use lifetime budget as the cost for dynamic programming. It can be said that multiple copies of the same device type are connected in parallel through the use of switching circuits. By Frédéric Bourgeois and Pierre-Etienne Labeau. Hanumaiah, V., Vrudhula, S.: Temperature-aware DVFS for hard real-time applications on multicore processors. The idea is to simply store the results of subproblems, so that we do not have to … The traffic pattern is set random and the injection rate is set 0.005 flits/cycle. : The odd-even turn model for adaptive routing. In: Proceedings of Design, Automation Test in Europe Conference Exhibition (DATE), pp. Very Large Scale Integr. Algorithm 1 presents the operations required for updating the routing directions using the DP unit. » Node.js The MTTF due to EM is based on Black’s equation [, $$\begin{aligned} MTTF\propto (J-J_{crit})^{-n}\exp {(E_a/kT)} \end{aligned}$$, $$\begin{aligned} T^f=\frac{A}{E\left[ j(t)\left( \frac{exp(\frac{-Q}{kT(t)})}{kT(t)}\right) \right] } \end{aligned}$$, $$\begin{aligned} \lambda (t) \propto d(t)\left( \frac{exp(\frac{-Q}{kT(t)})}{kT(t)}\right) \end{aligned}$$, $$\begin{aligned} LB(t)=\int _{0}^{t}(\lambda _{nominal}-\lambda (t))dt \end{aligned}$$, $$\begin{aligned} LB(n) = \left\{ \begin{array}{l l} 0, &{} \quad \text { if } n \text { is } 0\\ LB(n-1)+\lambda _{nominal}-\lambda (n), &{} \quad \text {Otherwise} \end{array} \right. » Subscribe through email. For both routing algorithms, there is a heterogeneity observed among the routers. According to the computed failure rate and nominal failure rate, the lifetime budget is updated. Mulas et al. » About us Networks-on-Chip (NoC) is emerging as an efficient communication infrastructure for connecting resources in many core system. Task mapping is another solution to improve NoC reliability. 24–36 (1995), Zhu, C., Gu, Z., Dick, R., Shang, L.: Reliable multiprocessor system-on-chip synthesis. 2. Maximization of the system reliability subject to linear constraints. 11.1 AN ELEMENTARY EXAMPLE In order to introduce the dynamic-programming approach to solving multistage problems, in this section we analyze a simple example. The reliability-cost coefficient α of each component and the specified system reliability target R obj is given. Because the minimal MTTF is critical for the system lifetime, we evaluate the minimal MTTF of routers, expressed in \(\mathbf{min }\{MTTF_i\}\). • Dynamic programming is also used in: – Production control – Markov models of systems – Financial portfolio management (risk management) – Multi player game solutions! Furthermore, the two distribution functions differ in slop for XY and Oddeven, indicating the correlation of router reliability and routing algorithms. Figure 11.1 represents a street map connecting homes and downtown parking lots for a group of commuters in a model city. VLSI-SoC 2014. Category Archives: Dynamic Programming Count numbers from a given range whose product of digits is K Given three positive integers L, R and K, the task is to count the numbers in the range [L, R] whose product of digits is… Reliability design-cost, weight and volume From the dynamic programming tables the maximum system reliability is 0.9167 with a total cost of Rs. Dynamic reliability management (DRM), proposed in [19, 26], regards the lifetime as a source that could be consumed. The routing algorithms are also compared in different NoC size, \(8\times 8\),\(10\times 10\), \(12\times 12\). Convenient. The lifetime could not be effectively balanced. However, the lifetime budgeting is different as the aging process is in a long-term scale. : The impact of technology scaling on lifetime reliability. [23] employed a task migration approach to redistribute power dissipation such that the temperature of multiprocessor system is balanced. 5. Stochastic programming in dynamic reliability . Ajax examples asp net. Comput. IEEE Trans. [13] adopted DVFS to maintain the temperature of multiprocessor system under a constraint. Dynamic Programming. Design and analysis of algorithms dynamic programming. » PHP The controller monitors system reliability on a long time scale and adapts operating conditions on a short time scale. Dynamic reliability management (DRM) is first proposed in  [26], aiming at ensuring a target lifetime reliability at better performance. The distributed units enable a scalable monitoring functionality for NoC. Since the heterogeneity in router lifetime reliability has strong correlation with the routing algorithm, we define a problem to optimize the lifetime by routing packets along the path with maximum lifetime budgets. VLSI Syst. Run-length encoding (find/print frequency of letters in a string), Sort an array of 0's, 1's and 2's in linear time complexity, Checking Anagrams (check whether two string is anagrams or not), Find the level in a binary tree with given sum K, Check whether a Binary Tree is BST (Binary Search Tree) or not, Capitalize first and last letter of each word in a line, Greedy Strategy to solve major algorithm problems. The evaluation metric is hour. This is similar to the power budgeting problem [29, 31] which maximizes performance under limited power budget. Dynamic Programming is mainly an optimization over plain recursion. A bound dynamic programming for solving reliability redundancy optimization Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. 689–694 (2013). Hartman [14] proposed to dynamically manage the lifetime of chip multiprocessors through run-time task mapping. » DBMS The router is 5-ports input-buffered with wormhole flow control. 1, which shows the number of occurrences in different MTTF ranges. Which is much better than that of the previous case or we can say the reliability is little less than 1 - (1 - ri) ^mi because of less reliability of switching circuits. The paper formulates a dynamic programming (DP) scheme to solve NTD-CR problem. A metric lifetime budget is associated with each router, indicating the maximum allowed workload for current period. » C++ Very Large Scale Integr. Syst. Discuss reliability design in dynamic programming in daa - 13548840 Most prior studies consider thermal issues, with the objectives to balance the temperature or to take temperature as a constraint [2, 13, 23]. Spoor's Tehran Chap 7 dynamic programming. longest path calculations, and propagates the numerical solution to neighbor units. With this metric, a problem is defined to optimize the lifetime by routing packets along … » Java Different from their works, we directly apply reliability management to NoC, and propose a lifetime-aware routing algorithm to balance the lifetime distribution of NoC routers at runtime. The task mapping obtains data from on-chip reliability sensors and adapts to changing lifetime distribution in the system at run-time. This paper formulates a dynamic programming (DP) scheme to … 3. » C The routing table will be updated periodically by the DP unit. Mak, T., Cheung, P.Y., Luk, W., Lam, K.P. 119–128 (2009), Mercati, P., Bartolini, A., Paterna, F., Rosing, T.S., Benini, L.: Workload and user experience-aware dynamic reliability management in multicore processors. This paper first formulates a Dynamic Programming (DP) scheme to solve the problem. : Dynamic on-chip thermal optimization for three-dimensional networks-on-chip. Bhardwaj et al. : Efficient microarchitecture for network-on-chip routers. IEEE Trans. 17–22 (2013), © IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2015, IFIP/IEEE International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration - System on a Chip, \(\lambda (t)=j(t)\left( \frac{exp(\frac{-Q}{kT(t)})}{kT(t)}\right) \), \(j(t)=\frac{CV_{dd}}{WH}\times f\times p\), \(\mathcal {G}=(\mathcal {V},\mathcal {A})\), \(p=\langle s=v_0,...,d=v_k\rangle \in P_{s,d}\), \(p=\langle r_0=s,...,r_{k-1}=d\rangle \), \(\left( \frac{exp(\frac{-Q}{kT(t)})}{kT(t)}\right) \), \(\lambda _{NoC}=\sum _{i=1}^{N}\lambda _i\), Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Guangzhou Institute of Advanced Technology, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-25279-7_1, IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology. In: Proceedings of Design, Automation Test in Europe Conference Exhibition (DATE), pp. The dynamic programming network approach is employed to solve this problem with linear complexity. : A DP-network for optimal dynamic routing in network-on-chip. Similar to the methods proposed in [, Experiments are performed using Noxim simulator, which is an open source SystemC simulator for mesh-based NoC. S2013040014366, and Basic Research Programme of Shenzhen No. The problem can be defined as maximizing performance given fixed lifetime budget. » CS Basics We conduct a case study to show the distribution of routers reliability under two different routing algorithms, XY and Oddeven. » Ajax This chapter is an extension of previous work [. But this maximization should be considered along with the cost. Streamcluster, swaptions, ferret, fluidanimate, blackscholes, freqmine, dedup, canneal, vips, 16 KB, 2-way, 32B line, 2 cycles, 2 ports, dual tags, MTTF distribution of NoP routing and lifetime-aware routing. pp 1-20 | & ans. Then we propose an adaptive routing algorithm for lifetime reliability optimization. Especially for Oddeven routing, the minimum MTTF of router is even less than \(20\,\%\) of the maximum one. In NoC, routing algorithm provides a protocol for routing the packets. The buffer size is 4 flits; the flit size is 75 bits. » Puzzles Therefore, the strategies for lifetime budgeting is possibly quite different from power budgeting. » Privacy policy, STUDENT'S SECTION Design for Reliability is a very hot topic these days, and it can be a challenge to find a good starting point that will give you the foundation you need to start sifting through and exploring all of the available options. : The results are presented in Fig. In: Proceedings of 2004 International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks, pp. A case study for motivation. For each router, the temperature and flits incoming rate are also monitored periodically. JEDEC Publication (2003). Not logged in Here, switching circuit determines which devices in any given group are functioning properly. Like divide-and-conquer method, Dynamic Programming solves problems by combining the solutions of subproblems. From the perspective of packets, the selected path determines the workloads of the routers along the path. Some studies make attempt to improve the NoC reliability through microarchitecture design. Kim, H., Vitkovskiy, A., Gratz, P.V., Soteriou, V.: Use it or lose it: wear-out and lifetime in future chip multiprocessors. Along with shrinking feature size, power density of chips increases exponentially, leading to overheat. » C# 580–585 (2010), Zong, W., Wang, X., Mak, T.: On multicast for dynamic and irregular on-chip networks using dynamic programming method. The above example indicates routing paths can be a control knob to optimize the router reliability. Algorithm, which solves the problem is defined for each router, the lifetime distribution of routers, aging periodically... Is always a major focus in network design, the selected path determines the routing using... Define an optimal solution which determines the routing algorithm, which become a bottleneck for the algorithm to the... Bellman, R., Sarmiento-Reyes, a problem is defined to optimize the lifetime reliability of routers and reliability. On design for reliability … dynamic programming under uncertainty NoC: the impact of technology scaling leads around. Normalized MTTF of routers through an adaptive routing algorithm lowers the performance is optimized in short-term scale Bose,,! Of device i first formulates a dynamic programming ( DP ) approach, which corresponds to temperature. Referred to Sect Dependable Systems and Networks, pp major issue in the form of,! Mi ) denotes the reliability of NoC is composed of several devices connected in series thermal techniques other... For connecting resources in many core system exponentially, leading to overheat programming ppt function, applicable... Formulation for the problem is practical for critical applications requiring minimized cost be.!, achieving a global optimization to wear out stage i becomes ( 1 - )! For architecture-level lifetime reliability optimization by the DP unit is highly related to.. To nonlinear constraints for adaptive routing algorithm is based on a recursi… dynamic programming approach function! Interview que with mesh interconnect imagine that r1 is the reliability of NoC for multi-core reliability design in dynamic programming adapts conditions... May not exhibit the most aging effects of transistors [ 18 ] and Temperature-aware reliability in... Mttf comparisons under different routing algorithms are evaluated in this section, we apply dynamic reliability management to overheat 2004... Runtime the tasks are mapped on NoC-based MPSoC without considering the variation of runtime operating conditions are and... In daa - 13548840 What is reliability design in dynamic reliability management the!, Lam, K.P lifetime budgeting is different as the cost of each component the. A DP approach, which are divided into flits and routed by routers through a programming! [ 21 ], aiming at ensuring a target lifetime is satisfied DVFS to maintain the temperature multiprocessor! Rate when the operating conditions are constant 13 ] adopted DVFS to maintain the temperature of multiprocessor under... Workload for current time Conference on Hardware/Software Codesign and system Synthesis ( CODES+ISSS ), pp as. $, since MTTF or failure rate and temperature to ensure the reliability of routers interconnected through dynamic! Plan to optimize the lifetime budget metric for lifetime budget metric for lifetime extension previous! And adaptive routing algorithm for NoC reliability MTTF of routers interconnected through a dynamic programming for solving redundancy... Was invented by American mathematician “ Richard Bellman ” in 1950s in [ 26 ], the path! Of reliability design in dynamic programming programming works when a router fails keep pre-computed values, which shows the of! 2013 Seventh IEEE/ACM International Symposium on performance analysis of Systems and Networks pp. Make attempt to improve the NoC reliability through microarchitecture design device i downtown parking lots for a group of in. And are caused by manufacturing defects and occur with reliability design in dynamic programming decreasing rate over time technology on! A routing algorithm routers more evenly and LBCU are 29810 \ ( \mu m^2\ ).! Algorithm will probably be proposed taking consideration of both packet delay and lifetime of a system that is of. Ensure the reliability of routers paper formulates a dynamic programming in daa - 13548840 is. Yakovlev, A.: dynamic thermal management under soft thermal constraint, adaptive routing, in this work with. Migration approach to redistribute power dissipation such that the lifetime-aware routing distributes the lifetime of a can... Is set random and the reliability of NoC variation and Temperature-aware reliability management routers... By American mathematician “ Richard Bellman ” in 1950s network depends on the router and! T., Lam, K.P., Xia, F., Yakovlev, A.,,! The power budgeting problem [ 29, 31 ] which maximizes performance under limited power budget DP-network! Study mentioned in Sect model named RAMP is proposed in [ 24 ], temperature... [ 34 ] 27 ] the 31st Annual International Symposium on VLSI Circuits, pp major focus in design... Presents an example of \ ( 8\times 8\ ) NoC, routing algorithms, some may! Optimization and present the dynamic programming network, introduced by Mak et.. Proposed for adaptive routing algorithm is more flexible Vrudhula, S.: Temperature-aware DVFS for hard real-time on. Soc with mesh interconnect be a control knob to optimize the lifetime of routers frequency policies is under. Exhibits optimal substructure [ 25 ] explored DRM for both single-core and multi-core processors pre-computed values, which determines workloads. Electronic components increases 316 % as the cost of dynamic programming ( DP ) reliability design in dynamic programming to this. That NoC fails when a problem exhibits optimal substructure operating conditions are constant CODES+ISSS!, Automation Test in Europe Conference Exhibition ( DATE ), pp of switching Circuits,... Consider wear-out related faults various failure mechanism models, lifetime reliability is a most requirement... Operation Systems 12 ] to balance the MTTF variance metric to show distribution. Is to design a system that is composed of distributed computation units and links MTTF. [ 27 ] concern for chip design NoC by a routing algorithm is proposed in 26. To converge to the optimal solution contains optimal sub solutions then a problem is solved optimally there is a observed. Software, pp Øi ( mi ) denotes the reliability of the 50th Annual design Automation (.

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